At Campus First, innovation means just another day at the office. All of our employees are here to push the limits of what a real estate management company can do. From expert customer service to growing our portfolio of student housing properties, every decision that we make is geared towards improving the off-campus living experience for students all over the country. We use in-depth data analytics to make sure that all of our properties are meeting company standards.
In addition to effectively managing the day-to-day operations of our properties, we’re constantly investing in and exploring new revenue opportunities such as valet trash services, VIP parking, and new educational technologies. The sky is the limit at Campus First. Here, increasing our bottom line and investing in the well-being of our students go hand-in-hand. Find out more about what Campus First is all about and get in touch with us today!
November 28, 2017
Student Housing Business, studenthousingbusiness.com and the InterFace Conference Group will host the 5th annual InterFace On-Campus Housing information and networking conference October 24-26 at the Loews Philadelphia Hotel.
This event brings together college and university housing, business, planning and auxiliary officers with on-campus student housing developers, operator/managers, architects, contractors and vendors.
TOPICS TO BE DISCUSSED:
- The State of On-Campus Student Housing and Key Trends & Issues Impacting Housing On-Campus
- Continued Growth of P3 Collaborations
- How to Write an Effective RFP & RFQ
- How to Find the Right P3 Partner
- Issues & Trends in Housing International Students
- Designing & Building for Generation Z
- And much more!
WHO SHOULD ATTEND:
Anyone who works in, or is connected to, on-campus housing including:
- College/University Housing, Business, Auxiliary and Facilities Professionals
- P3 Developers and Debt & Equity Capital Providers
- On-Campus Housing Operators & Managers
- Foundation, Consultants & Advisors
- Architects, Contractors, Marketing Specialists
Early Bird Rate of $339 Available for Student Housing Industry Professionals
Early Bird Rate of $189 Available for College/University/Foundation Housing & Business Officers
For sponsorship information, contact Richard Kelley: (914) 468-0818 • email@example.com
and Andrew Johnson: (404) 832-8262 • firstname.lastname@example.org
For registration information, contact Alicia Turlington: (404) 832-8262 • email@example.com
November 28, 2017
What makes one-year-old Campus First Student Living different? President Chris Feeley says it’s a determination to avoid a one-size-ﬁts-all approach.
Ready to apply several decades of multi-family and student housing real estate expe-rience to Campus First, which launched in 2016 as a division of multifamily ﬁrm CF Real Estate Services, Feeley and his team believe they can bring a fresh perspective to student housing.
The company has its headquarters in Atlanta with satellite ofﬁces in Pittsburgh, Washington, D.C., and Dallas. It has a three-pronged approach to student housing, cen-tered around value-add and core acquisi-tions, company owned and third-party management, and new student housing developments.
So far, the Campus First portfolio includes ﬁve properties: The Hue in Savannah, Georgia; University Village at Slippery Rock in Slippery Rock, Pennsylvania; Rivers Edge at Carolina Stadium in Columbia, South Carolina; and University Orchard and The Gathering in Salisbury, Maryland, for a portfo-lio total of approximately 3,000 beds. Campus First is also in the process of closing on a 645-bed property at a large university in the Southeastern Conference. The company plans to complete ﬁve acquisitions before the end of 2017 and expects to land a minimum of two third-party management assignments by the end of the year.
The roots of Campus First’s team start with MultiVersity Housing Partners (MVHP), a multifamily and student housing owner where Feeley served as managing partner starting in 2010. Anthony Magnelli, vice president, student housing and business development and Vice President of Operations Leonard Wright both worked with Feeley at MVHP. When they joined Campus First, University Village at Slippery Rock — which MVHP acquired in 2010 — rolled into the Campus First portfolio. The Salisbury and Columbia properties were acquired in fall 2016 as the company’s ﬁrst acquisitions.
Feeley, Magnelli and Wright’s experience together led them to embrace the value of cre-ating a company that was vertically integrated. Since MVHP was solely an owner, many func-tions, including property management and most back-ofﬁce functions, were outsourced. With a fresh slate and the partnership with CF Real Estate Services — a full-service multi-family real estate ﬁrm with 30,000 market-rate apartment units — Campus First decided to manage its own properties while also growing a third-party management platform. CF Real Estate Services now provides the backbone of Campus First’s back-ofﬁce functions, includ-ing general counsel, development expertise, and construction management.
“We decided to do our own management right out of the gate because we knew we could take a different approach,” Feeley says. “We wanted to create a management compa-ny where properties aren’t just numbers, but assets that are operated through a more bou-tique approach, whether it’s our own property or someone else’s.”
Feeley adds that the company aims to sub-vert the perception that owners and/or inves-tors do not want to be bothered with manage-ment and operational details.
“Investors are the ones putting their money in the deal, and they should be listened to,” Feeley says. “We are transpar-ent with them on every property issue. It could be a simple thing, like a burst pipe in a unit or a speciﬁc tenant complaint. Some people don’t bother investors with this sort of information. But we will give them a heads up on issues like these, and I think they really appreciate it.”
The company says it takes an individualized approach to marketing as well. “You do not approach the demographic in the same way at the University of South Carolina — where enrollment is around 30,000 — as you would at Slippery Rock University, which has approxi-mately 9,000 students,” Magnelli says. “We are really dialed into our markets. We have a great regional team with Campus First that goes out to each site and helps build a marketing plan spe-ciﬁcally tailored for that property in that market.”
For its value-add targets, Campus First is seeking acquisi-tions of properties built from 1998 to present in tier one, tier two, and even tier three markets, all of which are situated no more than a mile and a half from campus. Core-plus acquisitions are also on the table, as some of the compa-ny’s investor pool believes these assets to be defensive investments. The company’s satellite ofﬁces also help it to have a hands-on approach with all of its proper-ties. In addition to Atlanta and Pittsburgh, Senior Vice President Jinger Lane is based in Dallas and Feeley is based in the Washington, D.C. area. Magnelli, Wright and other team members are based in Pittsburgh.
“What really makes us different operationally is that we have all dabbled in a little bit of every-thing,” Magnelli says. “I’m VP of asset management and acquisi-tions, but I’ve been in operations most of my life. We have all seen all sides, and we really think like owners. We urge all of our on-site and executive personnel to have an assumed pride of ownership in all of our properties, whether owned or third-party managed by us.”
The Campus First team is also routinely cross-trained in other aspects of the business to afford the opportunity to experience different job functions versus the position for which they were originally hired. For example, Feeley says he is encouraging one of his property managers, who is interested in construction man-agement, to take classes and gain experience in construction on other Campus First properties.
“Our employees love that,” Feeley says. “They love to be fully immersed in all aspects of the business.”
June 20, 2017
SALISBURY, MD. (June 20, 2017) – Campus First Student Living, a division of CF Real Estate Services, is a company that focuses on the acquisition, development, and property management of purpose built student housing. Campus First is headquartered in Atlanta, GA, with offices in Pittsburgh, PA, Dallas, TX, and Washington, DC. Campus First is committed to not only being the premier provider of off-campus student housing for Salisbury University, but is equally excited to support the University by introducing the new The University Orchard Scholarship.
The University Orchard Scholarship is a $10,000 scholarship, where candidates will be required to write an essay discussing their involvement within their communities, or their impact while on-campus at Salisbury University. The mission of the scholarship is to partner with Salisbury University to create opportunities for Salisbury University students that come from Lower Eastern Shore communities. Each student must have a GPA of 3.0 or higher, and at least two semesters remaining until the completion of their degree program.
The scholarship will be awarded for the upcoming academic year (2017-2018), and interested parties can go to www.salisbury.edu/foundation/ to review submission details and apply for the scholarship.
University Orchard, a Campus First student property, is located less than one-half mile from the main campus of Salisbury University. “We are happy to be in the Salisbury market and in an effort to support the University and Eastern Shoreline communities, we thought it was vital to give back and provide our financial support that might not otherwise be available to a prospective student.” said Anthony Magnelli, Vice President of Acquisitions and Asset Management. Furthermore, Magnelli stated “Campus First Student Living and CF Real Estate Services take their relationship with their communities and universities very seriously and strive to be a great neighbor."
February 08, 2021
CF Real Estate Services hires Heather Sizemore as Senior Vice President to lead growingstudent housing divisionCF Real Estate Services (CF) has hired Heather Sizemore as senior vice president of itsstudent housing division, Campus First. In her new role, she will oversee the day-to-daymanagement and operations of the student assets as well as head up the businessdevelopment efforts of the expanding portfolio.
Sizemore comes most recently from Michaels Student Living (MSL), where she launched thecompany’s student housing management platform as vice president of operations, beforetransitioning to the on-campus business development team. During her tenure at MSL, sheparticipated in the management and development of more than 15,000 beds. “As a 20-yearveteran in the student living space, we are excited for the wealth of knowledge and experienceHeather brings to this position,” states Kevin Owens, executive vice president, CF Real Estate Services.
Campus First has recently added several student housing assets to its management portfolioincreasing its presence further in both Texas and South Carolina. As a well-known andrespected industry leader, Heather will be a key component of the continued success of thisgrowing division as the firm looks to expand its footprint to even more markets in 2021.
Heather received her Bachelor of Science degree in Liberal Studies, and subsequently herM.B.A. from the University of Central Florida. She also holds the CAPS designation, and is aNational Apartment Association Education Institute Certified Instructor. Her careerencompasses operating both on and off campus student housing communities in 26 states,including the single largest public-private project in the US totaling 3,300 beds and valued at$575 million.
Campus First is a boutique style property management firm that focuses on purpose-builtstudent housing. Campus First is a division of CF Real Estate Services (CF), headquartered inAtlanta, GA. Campus First currently owns or manages more than 5,200 beds in eight majorstudent markets, while CF currently owns or manages more than 26,000 units locatedthroughout the Southeast, Southwest, Northeast and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.With decades of industry experience, the company has evolved into a leading provider ofmultifamily services that include development, construction, acquisitions, property management,and asset management.
February 22, 2018
Campus-First-Expands-into-Texas-Through-the Acquisition-of the-Midtown-at-Denton-Student- Housing-Property-in Denton,-TX
February 22, 2018 08:00 AM Eastern Standard Time DENTON, Texas--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Campus First Student Living and CF Real Estate Services LLC announce the acquisition of Midtown at Denton, a 432-bed purpose built student apartment community. The addition of this student housing project along with another acquisition announced last week brings Campus First's managed portfolio to just over 6,000 beds. The property is located within 1 mile of the University of North Texas (UNT), situated in a premier district of Denton, TX. Campus First has announced a name change for the property and it will now be known as Midtown 905. p>
"The addition of Midtown at Denton to our Campus First portfolio provides us a unique opportunity to add Texas to our growing footprint in the southwest region," states CF Real Estate Services CEO, Brett Finkelstein. p>
Midtown 905 is a student property that offers 2 bedroom apartments, 3 bedroom apartments and 4 bedroom apartments, all with bed/bath parity. Midtown 905 was constructed in 2011 and first units were delivered in August of 2012. This well located off campus student housing has a total of 120 units with 432 beds. Midtown at Denton has an amenity package that includes a clubhouse that features a fitness center, study lounge, game room, and tanning bed. Outdoor amenities include a pool and carports. .
Campus First is a boutique style acquisition/development and property management firm that focuses on student housing. Campus First is a division of parent company, CF Real Estate Services, headquartered in Atlanta, GA. Campus First currently owns or manages 6,000 student beds, while CF Real Estate Services currently owns or manages 25,000 market rate and workforce housing units throughout the Southeast, Mid-Atlantic, and Midwest regions of the United States.
Property renovations will include the installation of state of the art fitness equipment in the fitness center, the addition of private study areas and music rooms, a completely renovated leasing office and clubhouse, additional carports, dog park, outdoor kitchen, renovated breezeways, and enhanced curb appeal with new exterior painting and landscaping improvements. As part of the capital enhancement plan, Campus First will also be completing 100 units of VIP suites which include granite countertops, subway tile backsplashes, new grey faux wood flooring, upgraded modern furniture package, and upgrading lighting. p>
"Campus First looks forward to taking advantage of this properties best in class location and positioning the asset to be Denton's premier choice for off campus student housing through its exciting renovation plans and unique specialty management style," states Christopher Feeley, President of Campus First.To learn more about Campus First Student Living, please visit www.campus1st.com. Contacts CF Real Estate Services Ryan Perez, 404-459-6242 firstname.lastname@example.org
February 15, 2018
"The addition of The Ridge to our Campus First portfolio furthers our investment strategy of adding well located student assets in growth markets," states CF Real Estate Services CEO, Brett Finkelstein. p>
The Ridge is a premier student property that offers both 2 bedroom/bath apartments and a 4 and 5 bedroom townhome product with large floor plans, garages, granite countertops, stainless steel appliances, subway tile backsplashes, and bed/bath parity. The Ridge was constructed in 2015/2016, with the first units delivered in August 2016. This trophy property has a total of 178 units with 661 beds. The Ridge is unparalleled in the Gainesville market with its first-class amenities, including a 3-room fitness center, large clubhouse, and several study lounges. Outdoor amenities include a massive beach entry pool, 1000+ person pool deck, 25 person hot tub, 20 foot Jumbotron, and the only lazy river in the Gainesville market. .
Campus First is a boutique style acquisition/development and property management firm that focuses on purpose built student housing. Campus First is a division of parent company, CF Real Estate Services, headquartered in Atlanta, GA. Campus First currently owns or manages 6,000+ student beds, while CF Real Estate Services currently owns or manages 25,000 market rate and workforce housing units located throughout the Southeast, Southwest, and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
Renovations and value-add improvements for The Ridge are valued at more than $700,000 and are scheduled to begin prior to the 2018/2019 school year. Property renovations will include improvements to the clubhouse and the build-out of new private study areas. Within the fitness center, there are plans to add additional fitness equipment, Fitness on Demand™, and a yoga studio. Within the pool area, there will be new fire pits and game areas. Ownership also plans to upgrade the dog park. p>
"We are eager to introduce our boutique style management to the Gainesville market. Campus First Student Living will present students an opportunity for an elevated off-campus living experience that they will not receive elsewhere," states Christopher Feeley, President of Campus First.
October 20, 2017
CF Real Estate Announces Expansion of Campus First Student Living with the Addition of the Principals of MVHP
October 28, 2016 10:28 AM Eastern Daylight Time ATLANTA--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Cocke Finkelstein, Inc. (CFI), announces the expansion of their Campus First Student Living division through the addition of the former principals of MultiVersity Housing Partners, LLC (“MVHP”).
“We want the business to be accretive to our investors and clients while maintaining a very high level of service.”
Campus First Student Living, has experienced solid success in the past year and is now proud to announce that the organization is expanding with the addition of the senior members of MVHP. CFI has incorporated the principals of MVHP, an existing company with a core focus on purpose built student housing. With the addition of these seasoned student housing professionals, the student division of CFI will continue to be known as Campus First Student Living with plans to expand its existing footprint at primary and secondary universities throughout the U.S. Campus First plans to immediately expand in university markets in Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Florida, Maryland, Oklahoma, Georgia, and Tennessee. This new partnership should increase bed count by more than 2,000 in the near term; while focusing long term on the acquisition and third party management of student housing communities across the United States.
Headquartered in Atlanta, GA, Cocke Finkelstein Inc. (CFI) is a privately held real estate and investment management firm, founded in 2004. Campus First and CFlane are affiliated management subsidiaries of Cocke Finkelstein. With the addition of MultiVersity Housing Partners, CFI is welcoming new team members including three senior leaders to the organization that bring more than 60 years of combined student housing experience.
Christopher Feeley, President of Campus First Student Living, brings more than 30 years of experience in commercial and multifamily real estate. Prior to joining Campus First, Mr. Feeley was the Managing Partner and Principal of MHVP for 7 years, acquiring over $1 billion of multifamily real estate.
Anthony Magnelli, Vice President of Business Development for Campus First Student Living, has 13 years of experience in his multifamily career. He most recently served as Principal for MVHP, and previously served as a Senior Regional Manager for a national student housing company and oversaw multiple student properties.
Leonard Wright, Vice President of Operations for Campus First Student Living, holds 9 years of management experience, with a strict focus on purpose built student housing. He most recently served as Principal of MVHP, and previously served as a Vice President and Senior Regional Manager for a national student housing company and oversaw multiple student properties.
October 17, 2017
LEXINGTON, KY - Campus First Student Living and CF Real Estate Services have acquired The LEX, a 649-bed student housing project located within walking distance of the University of Kentucky (UK) in Lexington, Kentucky.
“The acquisition of The LEX firmly exhibits our acquisition strategy of acquiring high quality, pedestrian student assets well below replacement cost,” states CF Real Estate Services CEO, Brett Finkelstein.
The LEX is a mid-rise property centrally located near the UK campus and downtown business district in Lexington. The LEX was constructed in 2008 and delivered its first units in 2009. The subject property has a total of 266 units with 649 beds. The LEX offers prime walkability to the university as well as 172 restaurants, bars, and nightlife venues all in close proximity. Additionally, the property has 23,444 square feet of retail space that is available for lease.
Campus First is a boutique style acquisition/development and property management firm that focuses on purpose-built student housing. Campus First is a division of parent company, CF Real Estate Services, headquartered in Atlanta, GA. CF Real Estate Services currently owns or manages 25,000 units throughout the Southeast and Texas.
Renovations and value improvements for The LEX are valued at $2.5M and are scheduled to begin prior to the 2018/2019 school year. Property renovations will include the addition of VIP suites that will offer granite countertops, appliances, hardware, and lighting.
Additionally, the scope will include a new re-design of the office space and clubhouse that will feature luxury entertainment areas, private study rooms, shared conference rooms, as well as a new fitness center and studio.
“We are eager to start renovations on this property as the VIP suites will present students an opportunity for an elevated off-campus living experience that they will not receive elsewhere,” states Christopher Feeley, President of Campus First.
July 27, 2017
Campus First Student Living Awarded Management of The Gathering near Salisbury University
July 27, 2017 08:00 AM Eastern Daylight Time
SALISBURY, Md.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Campus First Student Living and CF Real Estate Services LLC have been awarded management of The Gathering, located less than one mile from the main campus of Salisbury University in Salisbury, MD. Salisbury University is part of the University System of Maryland. The property will continue to retain the name The Gathering.
Campus First will bring its boutique style approach and expertise in student property management to position its second asset in the Salisbury Market as one of Salisbury University’s premier off- campus student housing options. Some immediate changes include going pet friendly and making the clubhouse 24 hours, which will give residents access at any time to the cyber café and coffee bar. This space will also feature community events that support and aid student academics.
The Gathering community was constructed in 2015 and is comprised of 50 luxury four-bedroom, four and a half bath townhomes. The property features a resort style swimming pool, tanning deck, game lounge, clubhouse, and fitness center. Unit interiors have faux wood flooring, bed-bath parity, stainless steel appliances, a large kitchen island, and are fully furnished.
“Campus First is pleased to have the opportunity to manage this luxury specialty community. Our dedicated team is looking forward to positioning The Gathering as one of Salisbury’s premier assets by using our customer focused strategy. Our four-tiered approach focuses on our owners/investors, employees, vendors, and of course our residents. The proof is in the numbers. Our portfolio boosts renewal percentages, rent growth and occupancy well above all of our major competitors. We are pleased that Campus First is being sought out and recognized for our fresh and innovative approach,” states Christopher Feeley, President of Campus First.
CF Real Estate Services LLC
Ryan Perez, 404-459-6242 email@example.com
July 26, 2017
University at Slippery Rock Announces Construction of Phase II
Campus First is set to deliver 152 beds summer of 2018
July 26, 2017 08:00 AM Eastern Daylight Time
SLIPPERY ROCK, Pa.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Campus First Student Living, a student housing management company, has announced they will pursue developing phase II of University Village at Slippery Rock. Located one-eighth of a mile from Slippery Rock University in Slippery Rock PA, the second phase of the existing community will consist of 5 buildings totaling 44 units and 152 beds. The units will consist of two-bedroom, two-bathrooms, three-bedroom, three-bathroom and fourbedroom, four-bathroom units. All units will be equipped with stainless steel high efficiency appliances, new furniture packages, granite counter tops and other luxury apartment features. Campus First expects to break ground by June 2018.
“The phase II land was part of our original acquisition, and we are excited about starting construction by mid-year 2018. This will be a great addition to our existing property and the SRU community.”
Phase I of University at Slippery Rock is a Class A+ student housing property consisting of 200 units and 632 beds. Campus First recently spent $1.1 million on capital improvements on the community, including a heated resort style pool featuring a pergola, hammock garden, dog park, hot tub and a complete renovation of the clubhouse. Phase I offers two-bedroom, two-bathroom and four-bedroom, four-bathroom units. All units are equipped with stainless steel appliances, brushed nickel fixtures, faux leather furniture, full-size washer and dryer, and hardwood cabinetry. The property is currently 96% leased for the 2017-2018 academic year.
According to Chris Feeley, Campus First's President, "The phase II land was part of our original acquisition, and we are excited about starting construction by mid-year 2018. This will be a great addition to our existing property and the SRU community.”
To learn more about Campus First Student Living, please visit www.campus1st.com.
CF Real Estate Services Ryan Perez, 404-459-6242 firstname.lastname@example.org
January 09, 2017
Campus First and CF Real Estate Services Acquires684 Bed Property at Salisbury University
January 09, 2017 08:00 AM Eastern Standard Time
SALISBURY, Md.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Campus First Student Living and CF Real Estate Services LLC, have acquired University Orchard, located less than one-half mile from the main campus of Salisbury University in Salisbury, MD. Salisbury University is part of the University System of Maryland. Campus First will be overseeing the management of this 648-bed property as well as a $600,000 property upgrade program. The property will continue to retain the name University Orchard.
“The Campus First team is excited about managing this property and turning this asset into the premier off-campus student property at University of Salisbury through its new management team and the planned upgrade program”
Campus First will bring its boutique style approach and expertise in student property management to position the asset as Salisbury University’s premier off-campus student housing option. As part of the property upgrades, Campus First will be constructing a new dog park, add a large outdoor LED screen in the pool and terrace area, renovate the exterior and interior of the clubhouse, and enhance the fitness center and study areas.
Residents will be pleased with the upgraded internet and cable packages as well as the addition of VIP premium suites. The new premium option will include grey faux wood floors, painted interiors, and completely renovated kitchens with subway tile backsplashes, stainless steel appliances, new counter tops and kitchen hardware. The bathrooms will also be updated and the VIP suites will boast all new modern furniture packages and new large, flat screen televisions.
University Orchard is currently 99% leased for the 2015-16 lease year. The property was constructed in 2013, and features a resort style swimming pool, outdoor spa, separate game room, clubhouse, and volleyball and pickle ball courts. Unit interiors have faux wood flooring, bed-bath parity, black appliances, and are fully furnished.
“The Campus First team is excited about managing this property and turning this asset into the premier off-campus student property at University of Salisbury through its new management team and the planned upgrade program,” states Christopher Feeley, President of Campus First.
To learn more about Campus First Student Living, please visit www.campus1st.com.
To learn more about CF Real Estate Services, please visit www.cfres.com.
CF Real Estate Services LLC
Ryan Perez, 404-459-6242 email@example.com
November 22, 2016
Campus First, CF Real Estate Services Buy Student Housing Property Near University of South Carolina
November 22, 2016 10:28 AM Eastern Daylight Time ATLANTA -- (BUSINESS WIRE)--(Cocke Findelstein, Inc. (CFI), announces the expansion of their Campus First Living division through the addition of the former principals of MultiVersity Housing Partners LLC ("MVHP").
Columbia, S.C. — Campus First Student Living and CF Real Estate Services LLC have formed a joint venture with a private commingled fund to purchase Club at Carolina Stadium, a 486-bed student housing property situated less than one mile from the main campus of the University of South Carolina in Columbia.
The community is located adjacent to the Congaree River and across from the university’s new ballpark. Campus First will manage the property, and will be overseeing a $2.7 million renovation and rebranding of Club at Carolina Stadium, which will be renamed Rivers Edge at Carolina Stadium.
The renovations will include a new clubhouse with a fitness center, private and shared study lounges, gaming area, café and a deck overlooking the swimming pool and terrace area. Other improvements will include a new outdoor kitchen, renovated dog park with dog washing station, two fire pit areas, enhanced landscaping, new signage, kayaks and canoes for residents and a new shuttle bus and electric bikes for students to get to class.
The overhaul will also include upgraded internet and cable packages, as well as the addition of VIP premium suites that will include gray faux-wood floors, painted interiors and renovated kitchens with subway tile backsplashes, stainless steel appliances, new countertops and kitchen hardware. The name of the seller and sale price were undisclosed. The ARA Newmark Student Housing Group, led by Executive Managing Director Ryan Lang, brokered the transaction.